What Are Privacy Coins?

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Introduction about Private Cryptocurrencies

Privacy-focused coins are cryptocurrencies that prioritize user confidentiality by concealing the movement of assets within their networks. These privacy-centric digital currencies make it challenging to discern who sent what to whom, rendering transactions virtually untraceable. This level of anonymity is highly advantageous for those who value their financial privacy and seek to avoid unwanted scrutiny.

While popular cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum offer some degree of privacy, they do not provide the same level of anonymity as privacy-focused coins. Privacy coins are built on two core principles: data protection and privacy preservation. However, these coins have become a contentious topic in the ongoing debate surrounding cryptocurrency security and governance, as their untraceable nature raises concerns among regulators and law enforcement agencies.

What should you know about privacy coins?

Privacy coins are a type of cryptocurrency specifically designed to offer users advanced privacy and anonymity when transacting on the blockchain. These cryptocurrencies, such as privacy coins like Monero, employ various privacy protocols to ensure that users’ identities and the origins of their activities remain entirely confidential.

By providing varying levels of protection, including concealed wallet addresses and transaction amounts, privacy coins enable users to send and receive digital money while keeping their transactions private. This secrecy level can appeal to those who value privacy in their crypto trading and financial dealings.

In contrast to non-privacy coins like Bitcoin, which operates on the principle of transparency and allows anyone to view transactions and activities on its network, privacy coins use sophisticated techniques to avoid chain analysis. These methods may involve masking a user’s genuine wallet balance and location or combining multiple transactions, making it more difficult to track transactions and potentially hiding accounting operations.

In summary, privacy coins are cryptocurrencies designed to prioritize user privacy and anonymity in the ever-evolving world of digital currencies and blockchain technology. Various methods are used to enable these features, which will be discussed later in this article.

Are these private cryptos legal?

The legal status of privacy coins varies across different jurisdictions. Their use and acceptance largely depend on a country’s stance on potential illicit activities facilitated by these coins, such as tax evasion or money laundering, and concerns from government agencies. In the United States, privacy coins remain legal; however, the Secret Service has recommended that Congress regulate privacy-enhanced cryptocurrencies. Deputy Assistant Director Robert Novy, from the Secret Service Office of Investigations expressed concerns in a 2018 testimony about criminals leveraging anonymity-enhanced currencies and services to obscure blockchain transactions.

While privacy coins offer secure transactions and protection from surveillance, they have attracted criticism for their anonymity, which is seen as a potential enabler of illegal activities such as money laundering and terrorism financing. Countries such as Japan and South Korea have banned trading and holding privacy coins due to concerns about their potential use in financial crimes. The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) has also identified using privacy coins as a red flag for money laundering through virtual assets.

Some cryptocurrency exchanges have stopped offering privacy coins in response to anti-money laundering guidance. For example, Bittrex dropped Monero, Zcash, Dash, and Grin from its offerings in January 2021 (source), while Kraken delisted Monero in the United Kingdom in November 2021, following guidance from the UK’s financial markets regulator (source). Similarly, exchanges in South Korea and Australia are no longer allowed to offer the trading of privacy coins. While privacy coins can provide anonymity and security in transactions, their use is subject to regulation and scrutiny due to their potential misuse in illegal activities.

As digital money evolves and the future of privacy coins remains uncertain, users must stay informed about the legal implications of using these cryptocurrencies. Before using privacy coins, it is vital to research and make sure you comply with the laws and regulations in your jurisdiction to ensure legal and responsible usage. 

How do privacy coins work and bring anonymity?

While sharing similarities with coins like Bitcoin, privacy coins set themselves apart by focusing on privacy and anonymity. These coins use various cryptographic techniques to ensure that the identity of the sender and receiver remains concealed and transactions cannot be easily traced. Here, we explore some mechanisms to anonymize transactions and achieve their goals.

Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs)

Zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) are innovative cryptographic technique that enables someone to prove the existence of something without revealing any sensitive information. One specific example of a ZKP is zk-SNARKs (Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge), which offers robust privacy protection. Privacy coins like Zcash and Monero utilize ZKPs to obscure users’ transaction history, enabling verification of transactions without sharing information on the specifics, such as the recipient’s address.

The use of ZKPs in privacy coins is particularly noteworthy as it offers users a high degree of anonymity, lacking in traditional cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. While Bitcoin transactions can be traced on a public ledger, privacy coins with ZKPs enable users to transact anonymously, making it difficult for third parties to determine the sender or recipient’s identity. This feature has attracted users concerned about their financial privacy and security, particularly in light of growing data breaches and identity theft.

The use of ZKPs in privacy coins also offers several benefits. For instance, it helps to mitigate the risks associated with centralized exchanges and platforms that collect and store user data, thus reducing the likelihood of hacks or data breaches. Additionally, it enables users to transact more confidently without worrying about compromised personal information.


Masking is a method that privacy coins use to disconnect the original transaction from the sender’s identity. Replacing the original transaction code with another code makes it significantly more difficult to trace the transaction back to its origin.

Ring Signatures

Ring signatures are a cryptographic tool that allows a message to be signed by any group member, making it impossible to determine who actually signed it. This makes them useful for providing anonymous signatures, such as from a high-ranking official, without revealing their identity.

This method obscures the identity of transaction originators, recipients, and the transaction amount. However, it can be used in other contexts where privacy is important, such as in electronic voting or whistleblower protection. By providing a way to sign a message anonymously, ring signatures offer a powerful tool for protecting the privacy and security of individuals and organizations.

Stealth Addresses

Stealth addresses not only maintain the recipient’s privacy but also prevent the connection of transactions to a specific user on the distributed ledger. However, they do not hide the purchased product or service and its quantity. These addresses are often used by individuals who want to keep their donations anonymous or those who want to avoid taxes. Every transaction with stealth addresses generates a new address to maintain the recipient’s privacy.

Aren’t all cryptocurrencies private?

It will rely upon every coin’s design and layout, as some are more open than others. Furthermore, not all (privacy) coins are what they promise to be.

As for privacy coins, it is impossible to call these genuinely private because new analysis techniques are being created, and machines may advance strong enough to break current encryption technology. They have, nevertheless, shown to be durable under existing data encryption.

As you learn more about privacy coins, you’ll notice that Bitcoin isn’t that secret. Many newcomers to cryptocurrency think that Bitcoin transactions are secret.

They are pseudo-anonymous in reality. Some data is confidential by Bitcoin, although not all. Anyone with a basic knowledge of how Bitcoin transactions function and how the blockchain works can track activities.

What are the top privacy coins? (Monero, Zcash, Dash, etc)

Bitcoin does not function as a true privacy coin. Also, Bitcoin users are identified by their public addresses, which can be linked to personal people over time using computer software. 

Cryptocurrency transactions and wallet addresses are also public information. Nonetheless, there are numerous private coins to select from. Some of the top privacy coins include the following:

Monero (XMR)

Monero is a leading cryptocurrency and the largest privacy coin based on market cap. It is recognized for its robust security features and widespread adoption within the crypto community. Often preferred in situations requiring anonymity, Monero utilizes advanced techniques such as ring signatures, stealth addresses, and Ring Confidential Transactions (Ring CTs) to ensure transactional privacy.

These mechanisms work together to effectively obscure the identities of both senders and receivers and the transaction amounts involved. As a result, Monero has become the go-to digital currency for privacy advocates and, unfortunately, for some malicious actors as well. Despite this, the technology behind Monero demonstrates the potential for private, untraceable transactions within the broader cryptocurrency landscape.


Protected Instant Verified Transactions (PIVX) is an anonymous cryptocurrency that aims to keep user data safe.

PIVX is monetary user information protection-focused virtual currency that uses cutting-edge ZK-powered SHIELD technology that allows users to receive and transparently send data.

Zcash (ZEC)

Confidential or visible operations are possible using Zcash.

There are two types of addresses utilized in Zcash: z-addresses and t-addresses. Confidential transactions are facilitated by the first, whereas transparent dealings are facilitated by such.

A private transfer is a transaction sent from one z-address to another. Deshielding changes a z-address to a t-address; shielding is the reverse process.

Lastly, like most digital currencies, t-address to t-address is an open exchange.

Horizen (ZEN)

Horizen is a blockchain environment that allows decentralized apps with anonymity. Additionally, Horizen has a primary blockchain and a sidechain system that allows developers to create customized internal or external blockchains and decentralized apps using ZEN as its native currency.

Secret (SCRT)

Secret Network is a blockchain-based platform allowing users to create secure smart contracts while maintaining full data confidentiality. Encrypting input outputs at the protocol level builds on typical smart contracts. Secret Network keeps any critical data obtained and maintained in decentralized apps private.

Dash (DASH)

Born from Bitcoin’s source code in 2014, Dash has come a long way in establishing itself as a prominent cryptocurrency focusing on privacy and efficiency. Initially known as Xcoin, it underwent rebranding as Darkcoin to emphasize its anonymity features before finally settling on the name Dash, a shortened version of “digital cash.” Dash’s unique privacy option, known as the “PrivateSend” feature, is built on the CoinJoin method, which enhances privacy by blending user transactions, thereby complicating the identification and tracing of transaction histories.

Dash has evolved over the years, shifting its focus from purely privacy-centric cryptocurrency to a versatile digital currency optimized for speed and usability in everyday transactions. The innovative “PrivateSend” feature, which is not inherently active, can be enabled by users who wish to ensure their transactions remain anonymous. By leveraging a decentralized network of servers called masternodes, Dash’s mixing protocol effectively obscures the origins of users’ funds. In addition to its privacy features, Dash offers an “InstantSend” option, facilitating transaction processing at speeds comparable to credit cards, further solidifying its position as a practical digital currency for daily use.

Grin (GRIN)

Grin, a privacy-focused digital currency, is developed collaboratively by a globally distributed network of developers. Unlike conventional cryptocurrencies, Grin has no addresses or amounts, allowing transactions to be effortlessly aggregated. To further enhance privacy, newly created transactions are relayed among a subset of peers before being widely broadcasted, effectively concealing their origins. Grin operates independently, with no controlling entity such as a company or foundation, and its coin distribution is designed for fairness, emitting 1 GRIN per second.

The underlying technology that powers Grin is Mimblewimble, which utilizes advanced cryptography to remove past transaction data without compromising security. This innovative approach prevents Grin’s blockchain from becoming overloaded with data, ensuring its sustainability and scalability. As a privacy-preserving digital currency, Grin offers users the ability to transact securely and anonymously.

Is Bitcoin a privacy coin?

While Bitcoin has often been associated with anonymity, it is essential to understand that it does not fully provide that level of privacy. In its early years, Bitcoin was the preferred payment method for dark web marketplaces due to the pseudonymous nature of transactions. However, the Bitcoin blockchain is public, allowing anyone to view transactions and associated addresses using public blockchain explorers. It is important to note that Bitcoin’s protocol preserves pseudonymity, not anonymity, as addresses can be traced unless explicitly claimed.

Blockchain analytics companies like Chainalysis have developed tools to analyze transaction patterns, enabling them to identify ownership of addresses and trace criminal activities. However, the recent Taproot upgrade on Bitcoin’s protocol has the potential to enhance transaction privacy by making complex smart contract transactions indistinguishable from regular ones. Until this upgrade is widely adopted and integrated by developers, its impact on privacy remains limited.

In the meantime, users seeking to improve the privacy of Bitcoin transactions can resort to mixers or tumblers. For example, these services, like CoinJoin and CoinSwap, mix the user’s Bitcoin with those of other participants, making it difficult to trace the origin of transactions.  While mixers enhance privacy, it is crucial to recognize that Bitcoin does not really qualify as a true privacy coin.


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